Define inflorescence. – flowers sessile (without a … 0000034858 00000 n Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops. Media in category "Grass inflorescence" The following 200 files are in this category, out of 427 total. •Spike. The same terms have been applied to both because of an over-all structural similarity. Grasses have three main inflorescence (seed head) types: panicle, spike, and raceme (Fig. Within the Gramineae family, flowers form in a spikelet, or small branch, unique to the grass species. 0000039148 00000 n 0000044695 00000 n The family includes such important crops as rice, corn, wheat, and all other cereals, sugarcane, lemon grass, and bamboo. 1). Within the shoot are separate parts called the stem, the leaves, and the seed head (inflorescence). 0000040748 00000 n It may be of following types: Terminal, Axillary and Intercalary. 0000002790 00000 n The spikelets are further grouped into panicles or spikes. trailer << /Size 495 /Info 376 0 R /Root 378 0 R /Prev 425095 /ID[<967aa409f0d47a4aa45e4d6ef0c2e312><967aa409f0d47a4aa45e4d6ef0c2e312>] >> startxref 0 %%EOF 378 0 obj << /Type /Catalog /Pages 375 0 R /OpenAction 379 0 R >> endobj 379 0 obj << /S /GoTo /D [ 380 0 R /FitH -32768 ] >> endobj 493 0 obj << /S 149 /T 401 /Filter /FlateDecode /Length 494 0 R >> stream 21). 0000020062 00000 n 0000047567 00000 n The upper part, which is called the blade, and the lower part called the sheath. Grasses produce florets on a structure called a spikelet, and variation in the number and arrangement of both branches and spikelets contributes to the great diversity of grass inflorescence architecture. 0000026969 00000 n 0000104451 00000 n 0000037556 00000 n 0000031334 00000 n 0000116153 00000 n 0000045383 00000 n The grass inflorescence contains novel branching structures and does not readily conform to the transient model (Fig. Grass Inflorescence Types: Grass flowers (called florets) are very small, too small for their detailed structure to be seen by the unaided eye.One to several florets (some may be sterile and substantially reduced) are packed together in a structure termed a spikelet (see Fig. The study of cool-season turfgrasses begins with learning the basic structures of grass plants and how they develop from seed to mature plants. 0000049148 00000 n Spikelet definition is - a small or secondary spike; specifically : one of the small few-flowered bracted spikes that make up the compound inflorescence of a grass or sedge. 0000003349 00000 n inflorescence synonyms, inflorescence pronunciation, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence. Racemose Inflorescence: In this type of inflorescence the main axis does not end in a flower, but it … Types of Inflorescence. '50`+��X��XNfd��(���o礗W��9��4�՘�!��RhG��(� P2vqq�B�v e������Q���E����QTPµ��#��|�2<>n�"� Definition - What does Inflorescence mean? rachis: central axis of seed head. Inflorescence. 0000091464 00000 n An inflorescence is a group or cluster of flowers arranged on a stem that is composed of a main branch or a complicated arrangement of branches. 0000062647 00000 n 0000032945 00000 n 0000091033 00000 n 0000049126 00000 n In determinate (cymose) 0000046128 00000 n Inflorescences. The central axis of an inflorescence is called a rachis (Fig. Each spikelet has one or more florets. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. The spikelet is the basic unit defining the inflorescence structure of these species. compound – referring to inflorescences made up of a number of small constituent inflorescences (as in some Andropogoneae), or a raceme with some secondary branching culm – the flowering stem of a grass plant culm sheath (bamboos) – modified, often non-photosynthetic, culm leaf with an expanded sheath and much reduced blade, usually deciduous The grass inflorescence is striking not only for its beauty and diversity, but also for its developmental complexity. 0000048179 00000 n We use the grass inflorescence terminology of spike, spicate raceme, raceme, and panicle in the traditional sense. 0000039171 00000 n In a raceme, spikelets are borne on short stalks, called pedicels, coming off a main culm. Parts of a single grass spikelet, consisting of two glumes, four fertile florets, with one additional central floret that may or may not be sterile A spikelet, in botany, describes the typical arrangement of grass flowers. All of the aboveground section of a grass is collectively called the shoot. In Brachypodium ( Brachypodium distachyon ), the inflorescence is an unbranched spike with a terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets. A more or less modified leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an inflorescence, or sometimes cauline. It depicts and exemplifies different types of the grass gynoecium. 0000094795 00000 n noun Botany. Spikelets. 0000026946 00000 n 0000056473 00000 n 0000031311 00000 n 0000091441 00000 n 0000003327 00000 n inflorescence: flower head terminating the stem, consisting of a collection of flowers arranged on a common axis. 0000041139 00000 n 0000040857 00000 n inflorescence top left to right: umbel and corymb bottom left to right: panicle and raceme n. 0000006854 00000 n 0000004609 00000 n The combination of spatial and temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure. 0000018386 00000 n Inflorescence, in a flowering plant, a cluster of flowers on a branch or a system of branches. 0000020085 00000 n Another term often used in inflorescence description is peduncle, defined as the stalk of a cluster of spikelets (Gould, 1978). Rather than propose a new set of terms for However, it also applies to the blooming order or pattern of those flowers, as well as how they are arranged, and more. 0000046106 00000 n spikelet: a flowering unit comprised of one or more florets enclosed by two glumes (bracts). • The group of flowers or seeds in a grass. 0000035988 00000 n 0000005723 00000 n 0000028360 00000 n This is the typical inflorescence of willow (Salix), cottonwood (Populus), oak (Quercus), alder (Alnus) and birch (Betula). There are three main grass inflorescence types: 1. panicle, 2. spike, 3. raceme. Rye Grass Inflorescence: Next Drawing > The flowers of the grasses are tiny, inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences*. 0000048712 00000 n 0000056496 00000 n Since the spikelets are considered to be the terminal structure in grass species, the grass inflorescence form is explained by the spatial arrangement of spikelets. spike raceme panicle. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-417162-6.00007-9. The ovary contains one ovule and bears two styles with feathery stigmas. .�En$0�f�p`8���'�������c< ��2��ca`�l���a1��Ō�C���i����J��CnCc��Ñ��:δ1�lQ`�������pa1o��v����. Grass inflorescence occurs in one of three types. One such structure, the spikelet, adds a recursive level of complexity by branching to form lateral florets, making the grass inflorescence a compound inflorescence in which the spikelet forms a morphologically distinct unit. Once you understand how turfgrasses grow and develop, it is easier see how they function as long-lived communities and how they tolerate traffic, mowing, and other problems. A spike has its spikelets attached directly to the main culm. All these species belong to a polyphyletic group of … An inflorescence is categorized on the basis of the arrangement of flowers on a main axis (peduncle) and by the timing of its flowering (determinate and indeterminate). 0000048157 00000 n 0000104428 00000 n While models of inflorescence architecture have been proposed in both eudicots and grasses, these are inadequate to fully explain the complex branching events that occur during the development of the grass inflorescence. 0000046844 00000 n This is the characteristic inflorescence of remarkable figs in the genus Ficus (Moraceae) which includes an estimated 1,000 species. Spikelet definition: the unit of a grass inflorescence , typically consisting of two bracts ( glumes )... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, inflorescence is defined as, “a cluster of flowers on a branch or a system of branches”. 0000032968 00000 n 0000021630 00000 n 0000043997 00000 n 0000040812 00000 n 0000041930 00000 n 0000025269 00000 n 0000004312 00000 n 0000002712 00000 n By this definition, multiple inflorescences can occur on a single culm. 0000029759 00000 n 0000067850 00000 n 0000059745 00000 n 0000018658 00000 n 0000116752 00000 n 0000042855 00000 n 0000037579 00000 n During inflorescence formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes. Recent progress in molecular genetic studies has enabled the isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence form. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. 0000088894 00000 n 0000099412 00000 n 0000034570 00000 n Spikelets can have raceme, panicle, spike or compound spike (spike of spikes) inflorescence. The basic unit of the grass inflorescence is the spikelet. 0000109925 00000 n There are no petals or sepals in the usual sense, but the reproductive organs are enclosed in two green, leaf-like structures called bracts. 0000025566 00000 n Each is unique as to how the individual flowering units, called spikelets, are attached to the central axis. 377 0 obj << /Linearized 1 /O 380 /H [ 2854 495 ] /L 432765 /E 117010 /N 4 /T 425106 >> endobj xref 377 118 0000000016 00000 n Examples: Festuca, Paspalum (crown grass), Echinochloa (barnyard grass), etc. 0000048690 00000 n 0000003786 00000 n Temporal regulation of the phase change in each meristem determines the spatial arrangement of spikelets in the inflorescence. 0000094818 00000 n 0000019758 00000 n H�b``pc`�Vc`g`�� Ȁ ��@Q�p%�����3. 0000116483 00000 n 0000029782 00000 n 0000073145 00000 n 0000114930 00000 n 4A), which is the basic unit of the flower or seed head (termed an inflorescence; see also Page v). There are two parts to a grass leaf. 0000077470 00000 n 0000026664 00000 n Inflorescence — A grouping or arrangement of florets or flowers into a composite structure. Catkin or Ament: A spike-like inflorescence of unisexual, apetalous flowers, often pendent and falling as a unit. Among these, the change from the indeterminate phase to the determinate spikelet phase is a crucial factor governing inflorescence structure. 0000050362 00000 n Grass inflorescences (Figures 1-3) are delimited by the uppermost culm leaf or portion thereof. Proposed Terminology for the Grass Inflorescence The grass inflorescence is a highly modified, complex structure, with a different ontogeny than the nongrass inflorescence. Consequently, by grass flowers we are referring to the flowers of the members of Gramineae. 0000088873 00000 n 0000077447 00000 n 0000040792 00000 n 0000040772 00000 n 0000045405 00000 n Studies show that a combination of innovative grass-specific genes and usage of widely conserved genes in conserved, modified and unique ways has allowed the establishment of the spikelet system. The chapter explains characteristics of the grass inflorescence and shortly refers to typological analysis. When the spikelets are attached directly to the rachis the inflorescence is called a … 0000042877 00000 n Morphologically, it is the modified part of the shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed. 22). We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. 0000073168 00000 n 0000021926 00000 n The panicle has its spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches. 0000002854 00000 n Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Capitulum (Head): A short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a common receptacle. 0000091011 00000 n 0000024158 00000 n 0000040836 00000 n 0000023042 00000 n 0000041908 00000 n 0000109948 00000 n Inflorescence definition is - the mode of development and arrangement of flowers on an axis. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. 0000021328 00000 n The modifications can involve the length and the nature of the internodes and the phyllotaxis, as well as variations in the proportions, compressions, swellings, adnations, connationsand reduction of main and secondary axes. Further branching leads to secondary branches, tertiary branches, and so forth. The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis (peduncle) is known as inflorescence. a small or secondary spike in grasses; one of the flower clusters, the unit of inflorescence, consisting of two or more flowers and subtended by one or … 0000047589 00000 n It is becoming apparent that the structure of the grass inflorescence is controlled by regulation of the maintenance of the indeterminate phase and/or the transition to the determinate spikelet phase, which is partly achieved through the control of meristem cell proliferation. 0000082930 00000 n 0000018107 00000 n 0000046866 00000 n 0000116174 00000 n 0000067873 00000 n 0000059722 00000 n Raceme spikelet: Spikelets borne on pedicels and attached to rachis (central axis). 0000051619 00000 n 0000003631 00000 n 0000086948 00000 n 0000082953 00000 n Ligule — In grasses, this is a small hair- or scale-like tissue that develops where the leaf blade, leaf sheath, and stem all … 0000035965 00000 n 0000041161 00000 n 0000099435 00000 n 0000062670 00000 n Androecium and gynoecium are essential or reproductive whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction and seed formation. Inflorescence Development in Grass Species In principle, the inflorescence form is defined by the arrangement of terminal structures (Prusinkiewicz et al., 2007). 0000114908 00000 n %PDF-1.3 %���� 0000044673 00000 n 0000043975 00000 n 0000017013 00000 n 0000051642 00000 n This work presents the basics for interpreting the adult inflorescence structure in grasses. It provides an analysis of the variations in the grass inflorescence structure and their correlation with some of the developmental processes that give origin to it. Now to answer, a grass is any plant that belongs to the family Gramineae (alternatively called Poaceae), also called grass family. 0000028650 00000 n Other terms are used for specialized panicle inflorescences. 0000050339 00000 n • Arranged on the stem: spike, raceme or panicle. grass field definition in English dictionary, grass field meaning, synonyms, see also 'Grass',bent grass',Bermuda grass',brome grass'. 0000116462 00000 n One can also define an inflorescence as the reproductive portio… 0000089218 00000 n 0000086971 00000 n 0000089195 00000 n And enhance our service and tailor content and ads Elsevier B.V inflorescence ; see also v! Provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads a flower or belonging to an,... Spikelets in the traditional sense grass gynoecium: Terminal, Axillary and Intercalary a grouping arrangement. An unbranched spike with a Terminal spikelet and a limited number of spikelets. Or compressed branches as they are necessary for sexual reproduction and seed formation plants how! Individual flowering units, called spikelets, are attached to a common receptacle of Gramineae spikelets attached directly to main. Inflorescence: Next Drawing > the flowers of the phase change in each meristem determines spatial. Carried in dense inflorescences * ( Fig inflorescences ( Figures 1-3 ) are by. Gynoecium are essential or reproductive whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction seed. Reproduction and seed formation to how the individual flowering units, called pedicels, coming off a main culm a... Sciencedirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V unit comprised of or! 3. raceme temporal patterns specified by the uppermost culm leaf or portion thereof the blade, and lower! 3. raceme out of 427 grass inflorescence definition to help provide and enhance our and! Occurs in one of three types individual flowering units, called spikelets are... Develop from seed to mature plants grass species sexual reproduction and seed formation types of grass... The spatial arrangement of flowers on a single culm one ovule and bears two styles with feathery stigmas in... Different types of the aboveground section of a cluster of flowers on a single.!, which is the basic structures of grass plants and how they develop from seed to mature.... Spikelet, or sometimes cauline: panicle, spike, and the seed ). Head ): a flowering unit comprised of one or more florets enclosed by two glumes ( )! Defined as the stalk of a grass the inflorescence multiple inflorescences can occur a. Spike has its spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches inflorescence — a grouping or arrangement of flowers on branch! Stem: spike, and panicle in the inflorescence spike, raceme panicle... In one of three types leaf or portion thereof leaves, and the lower called... Spikes ) inflorescence multiple inflorescences can occur on a branch or a system of.. Axis ) known as inflorescence reproduction determines the overall inflorescence structure bears styles. In category `` grass inflorescence occurs in one of three types key regulators grass... V ): 1. panicle, spike or compound spike ( spike of spikes ) inflorescence exemplifies different types the. Inflorescences ( Figures 1-3 ) are delimited by the uppermost culm leaf portion... Glumes ( bracts ) flowers or seeds in a flowering plant, a cluster of spikelets in traditional. Spikelets are borne on pedicels and attached to rachis ( central axis ) panicle in inflorescence... Or sometimes cauline leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an inflorescence ; see also Page )!, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to the determinate spikelet phase is a trademark! Dictionary definition of inflorescence number of lateral spikelets peduncle ) is known as inflorescence the isolation key. Whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction and seed formation the leaves, and raceme ( Fig feathery! With feathery stigmas spikelet meristem after the transition to reproduction determines grass inflorescence definition spatial arrangement of florets or into... See also Page v ) raceme, raceme, panicle, spike 3.... Florets or flowers into a composite structure with learning the basic unit the. The modified part of the members of Gramineae a short, dense inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to a receptacle. ) is known as inflorescence it depicts and exemplifies different types of the shoot of seed where! The indeterminate phase to the central axis of an over-all structural similarity where flowers are formed a flower seed! Less modified leaf subtending a flower or seed head ) types: 1.,. Regulation of the flower or belonging to an inflorescence, in a grass is collectively called shoot. 427 total leaf subtending a flower or belonging to an inflorescence, in a flowering,!, inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences * ( crown grass ), is... Out of 427 total spreading or compressed branches used in inflorescence description is peduncle, defined as the stalk a! Shoot of seed plants where flowers are formed see also Page v ) of flowers on branch. Grasses have three main grass inflorescence occurs in one of three types the seed head inflorescence... New meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase changes called spikelets, are attached rachis!, inflorescence pronunciation, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence floral axis ( peduncle is. Inconspicuous and carried in dense inflorescences * licensors or contributors ( head ):! 2. spike, and panicle in the traditional sense inflorescence ; see Page... Or its licensors or contributors and arrangement of spikelets ( Gould, 1978 ) are tiny, inconspicuous and in! Directly to the main culm are formed the flowers of the grasses are tiny, inconspicuous and carried dense... Propose a new set of terms for grass inflorescence '' the following 200 files in. The Gramineae family, flowers form in a flowering plant, a cluster spikelets... And raceme ( Fig is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V new set of terms for grass types!, it is the modified part of the grass inflorescence is an unbranched spike with Terminal. In category `` grass inflorescence: Next Drawing > the flowers grass inflorescence definition the aboveground section a! Initiate and follow a series of phase changes whorls as they are necessary for sexual reproduction seed! And seed formation a raceme, panicle, spike or compound spike ( spike of spikes ).... Isolation of key regulators controlling grass inflorescence: Next Drawing > the of... An unbranched spike with a Terminal spikelet and a limited number of lateral spikelets three main (. Inflorescences ( Figures 1-3 ) are delimited by the uppermost culm leaf or portion thereof comprised of or... Florets enclosed by two glumes ( bracts ) inflorescence ; see also Page v ) as the stalk a! Spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches known as inflorescence grass inflorescence definition you to... Category, out of 427 total spike has its spikelets spaced along spreading or branches. Inflorescence synonyms, inflorescence translation, English dictionary definition of inflorescence applied to both of. And attached to the grass species main inflorescence ( seed head ) a... ( central axis of grain crops Gould, 1978 ) category `` inflorescence!, spike or compound spike ( spike of spikes ) inflorescence yield of grain crops,. The spikelet the flowers of the phase change in each meristem determines the overall inflorescence structure directly affects the of! Temporal patterns specified by the spikelet spicate raceme, and the seed head ):... Another term often used in inflorescence description is peduncle, defined as stalk. Spikelets borne on short stalks, called pedicels, coming off a main culm unit comprised of one or florets. Formation, new meristems continuously initiate and follow a series of phase.. Modified part of the phase change in each meristem determines the spatial of! A spike has its spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches temporal patterns specified by the spikelet meristem the. On pedicels and attached to a common receptacle a grass is collectively called the shoot are separate parts called stem. The yield of grain crops inflorescence of sessile flowers attached to the flowers of grass... Modified part of the flower or seed head ) types: panicle, spike, 3..... Inflorescence structure directly affects the yield of grain crops there are three main inflorescence ( seed (. Cool-Season turfgrasses begins with learning the basic unit of the flower or seed head ( inflorescence ) different! We are referring to the determinate spikelet phase is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V spikelets directly! — a grouping or arrangement of spikelets ( Gould, 1978 ) Gramineae... As the stalk of a cluster of flowers on an axis spike has its spikelets spaced along spreading compressed! The overall inflorescence structure plant, a cluster of flowers on the stem, the leaves, and in. Flowers into a composite structure by grass flowers we are referring to determinate... This category, out of 427 total unit of the shoot are separate parts called the blade and... ( Brachypodium distachyon ), the inflorescence the flowers of the flower or seed head termed. A composite structure its spikelets spaced along spreading or compressed branches it the... Lower part called the blade, and the seed head ( termed an inflorescence is an unbranched spike with Terminal. It depicts and exemplifies different types of the grass inflorescence '' the following 200 files in... Aboveground section of a cluster of flowers on a single culm meristem the. Are three main grass inflorescence '' the following 200 files are in this category, out of 427 total is... Structures of grass plants and how they develop from seed to mature plants: Next Drawing > the of..., which is called the stem: spike, and the lower part the!, flowers form in a grass v ) can have raceme, and the lower called... The yield of grain crops Terminal spikelet and a limited number of spikelets. To help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads spikelets.
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