Now even if we are inclined to posit possibilia, it may seem that Lewis goes too far in declaring that possible worlds exist “in just the same way” that you and I do. This is the view that truths about what is possible or what is necessary are determined by linguistic convention, rather than by possible worlds, ersatz worlds, or the like. It seems we can create fictional states-of-affairs at whim, but modal matters do not seem so arbitrary. Imagine first a non-existent bald man in a doorway, and then imagine a non-existent fat man in the doorway. Further worries about Lewis’ view concern the individuation of worlds. Yet in this, Lewis is forced to say that no possible world contains isolated space-time regions. A number of objections have been raised against Quine. After all, intuitively, what is possible for me does not depend on facts about any “maximal objects” that exist; it is not as if facts about these spatiotemporally removed objects are what make it possible for me to be a dentist. As in other Ersatz views, concrete possible worlds are replaced with actual abstract objects. Yet metaphysical necessitation is of course a modal notion. However, Lewis eventually revises this in considering two objects from different worlds. The upshot is that, for Quine, if one could appropriately define ‘analytic’, this would bring us closer to understanding modal terms. However, perhaps an Ersatzer can accommodate the possibility of alien properties in a different way. Spinoza’s list of the basic types of existing things is exceedingly short: substances and modes (Ip4d). There is a further concern about the metaphysics of the atoms. A sustained defense of Lewis’ Realism, and an attack on the alternative, Ersatz views. In section two, I shall therefore examine the recent tilt concerning Leibnizs views on modalities which centers around the counterpart relation. Yet for Lewis, there is no causal interaction between us and other worlds, and so knowledge of other worlds looks problematic. Finally, for each point in the co-ordinate system, we stipulate that the point either is filled with matter or is empty space, by assigning it the number 1 or 0, respectively. The abstract objects recruited for this purpose include (a) sets of sentences, (b) sets of propositions or properties/relations, (c) pictorial objects, (d) combinations of matter and empty space (defined set-theoretically), and (e) objects that lack any specification beyond “abstract.” Let us review these options in turn. But Property Ersatzers seem unable to accommodate this intuition. Rather, it illustrates that Lewis uses ‘actual’ as an indexical term vis-à-vis worlds: Just as the pronoun ‘I’ picks out different people on different occasions (depending on the speaker), ‘actual’ can denote the objects of different worlds, depending on which world is relevant. Yet Quine worries that ‘creature with a heart’ and ‘creature with a kidney’ might pass this substitutivity test, since they supposedly co-refer, despite being non-synonymous. What is the difference between the merely possible and the actual? An detailed introduction  to the dialectic between Modal Realists and Ersatzers. Though, as he grants, this may be somewhat open to debate. (Impossible worlds facilitate the semantics of, for example, “Some round squares are round” or “Crazy people believe that some round squares exist.”) However, Lewis resists impossibilia, since he takes it as axiomatic that we can never assert a truth about an object by uttering a contradiction. So in the end, Lewis achieves the plentitude of worlds with a modified Recombination Principle; this says that if x ¹ y, then in some possible world, x or a duplicate of x co-exists with y or a duplicate of y (assuming the spacetime of some world is large enough to contain the two). This work presents Leibnizs subtle approach to possibility and explores some of its consequential repercussions in his metaphysics… Yet the reader can verify that Lewis’ Realism, Ersatzism, Fictionalism, the Armstrong Hybrid, and Conventionalism face circularity worries; each seems to implicitly deploy a modal notion in the analysis of modal notions. So, the sentence “It is possible for me to become a dentist” is true because there is at least one possible world, so defined, where I am a dentist. The label ‘Meinongian,’ however, is anachronistic since Alexius Meinong was writing years before the advent of Kripkean worlds. This is obvious enough if propositions are identified with linguistic (or mental) sentence-types. In the hard sciences, moreover, if an unobservable entity is theoretically useful, that is often seen as a reason to think it exists. But if we view these laws as literally true, it that would mean the ideal entities literally enter into causal relations and occupy space-time. To be sure, if Lewis’ possible worlds genuinely exist, the facts about those worlds might metaphysically determine the modal facts unproblematically. (Though, note, Lewis thinks that there are still cardinality problems unless the sentences are “Lagadonian,” where objects themselves are used as their own names). Yet here too, since Lewis’ worlds are spatio-temporal kinds of entities, they qualify as “concrete.” Finally, Lewis recognizes that some things might be abstract in the sense of being an “abstraction,” that is, they might be the kind of entity represented by an incomplete or gappy description. It already appears in one of his earliest published papers (Lewis 1968). Leibniz: A Collection of Critical Essays. Rather, they are to be placed in neither category, and instead lie “beyond being and non-being” (op. (1953). Notably, Rosen does not always identify himself as a Fictionalist, and similarly with Daniel Nolan (who is arguably the leading expert on Fictionalism in the early 21st century). Leibniz on Substance and God in “That a Most Perfect Being Is Possible”. And from these, worlds are built by describing relations between the property-groupings. And so, contrary statements would have the same truth-value. So, why is the statement true? Normally, a statement is true because it represents a situation that actually obtains, but in the present case, the statement represents a situation which does not actually obtain. ), Provides an extremely influential theory of names and their behavior in modal statements. After university study in Leipzig and elsewhere, it would have been natural for him to go into academia. However, Armstrong puts no constraints on what properties a possible individual might instantiate. And the Fictionalist holds that the truth of “Necessarily, p” is determined by whether Lewis’ Realism says “Necessarily, p.” Hence, if Lewis’ Realism says that Realism is necessary, the Fictionalist is then committed to the truth of “Necessarily, Lewis’ Realism is true,” and thereby surrenders her Fictionalism in favor of Modal Realism. Most basically, however, Armstrong wants a “Naturalist” metaphysics, a metaphysics where anything that exists (i) has a location in actual space-time, and also (ii) enters into causal relations. For instance, simply as a logical point, it has the strange consequence that “Necessarily, I am myself” is true only in virtue of objects that are neither identical to me nor to one another. Two Dogmas of Empiricism, Reprinted in. Possible Worlds I: Modal Realism. Instead, a possible world is construed as an ungrouped plurality or “heap” of elements. In contrast, Meinongian Realism increases the kinds that entities exist. A later approach to come on the scene is the Fictionalist view of possibilia. Email: Quine argues that such circularity is in fact ineliminable, and that our modal notions are therefore defective. Such agnosticism is no threat to Lewis’ own metaphysics, since real concrete facts will determine whichever space-times are possible. Yet it was Creswell 1972 who first accepted and defended the view. But this is partly why, at the end of “Two Dogmas,” Quine provides a very general picture of the relations between statements, where the analytic/synthetic distinction (and the necessary/possible distinction) apparently can have no application. What’s more, recall that the ersatz worlds are supposed to be representational, since certain things are true “according to a world.” Yet Non-Reductivism just leaves this representational feature as mysterious. Sider, T. (2003). In an analogous manner, the Fictionalist suggests that “There is some possible world with a talking donkey” is false strictly speaking, since (with all due respect to David Lewis) there are no such worlds. Suppose for the sake of argument that Lewis has adequately answered the objections raised thus far. After all, on her view, what Lewis’ Recombination Principle says (in conjunction with the rest of Lewis’ view) wholly determines what is possible. Though as Rosen says, this is hard to stomach especially if the story-prefixed statements occasionally lack a truth-value (in accordance with Rosen’s advice above). In the first instance, the set-theoretic constructions determine the position of a world’s mereological atoms (that is, indivisible parts making up a whole), yet the assumption is that this also determines all the goings-on in the world at the macro-level. If so, then unlike the Property Ersatzer, the Pictorial Ersatzer could meet Lewis’ demand to individuate alien properties. Brandon C. Look. In §8 of the Discourse onMetaphysics, Leibniz presents his classic picture, writing: In other words, each individual substance has a completeindividual concept(CIC), which contains (or from which arededucible) all predicates true of it past, present, andfuture. But when is an object “sufficiently similar?”  Lewis in fact thinks there are no absolute conditions on this. Written around January 1686, it is the most accomplished systematic expression of Leibniz's philosophy in the 1680s, the period in which Leibniz's philosophy reached maturity. de Rosset, L. (2009a). Nicholas F. Stang, Kant’s Modal Metaphysics Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016 Pp. Nonetheless, the Ersatzer might insist that the ontological cost here is not as high as it is with Lewisian worlds. Most notably, an abstract object is prototypically one that does not enter into spatio-temporal relations. In addition, Lewis holds that such Ersatz accounts cannot allow other “alien” (that is, non-actual) properties, even though such properties seem possible. The University Of Western Ontario Series In Philosophy Of Science The example of course utilizes a Newtonian spacetime, but a Combinatorialist can identify other space-times, describe them by co-ordinate systems, and assign 1s and 0s as before. Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (/ ˈ l aɪ b n ɪ t s /; German: [ˈɡɔtfʁiːt ˈvɪlhɛlm fɔn ˈlaɪbnɪts] or [ˈlaɪpnɪts]; 1 July 1646 [O.S. Leibniz's modal metaphysics. Indeed, many have said that Lewis should admit impossible worlds anyway, for the same kind of indispensability reasons in favor of possible worlds. In utilizing maximally consistent sets, the Sententialist account depends on the modal notion of “consistency.” And unlike Lewis, the Sententialist cannot try to eliminate this notion by instead depending on robust facts about concrete possible worlds. The most important primary source in modal metaphysics. (Though the problem remains that the Ersatzer apparently presupposes a modal notion of “consistency”). Regardless, there is always the chance that some possible space-time remains unidentified, leaving the combinatorial possibilities incomplete. For although ideal scientific entities seem to be fictitious, our tendency is nonetheless to view, for example, the ideal gas laws as literally true. ), Combinatorialism is yet another view which prefers abstract surrogates over concrete possible worlds. Possible Worlds II:  Nonreductive Theories of Possible Worlds. In that case, Lewisian worlds qualify as non-abstract or “concrete,” since they are particulars. Moreover, as Lewis highlights, our modal intuitions can be infirm about whether certain space-times are possible. Consequently, once we have a set-theoretic construction using these numbers, we may be strained to believe that this specific construction really is what determines the truth of our modal statements. Perhaps the best way to levy the charge is by considering how a distribution of simples relates to macro states-of-affairs. Yet as we saw, the standard theory of properties would only create circularity in the Ersatzer’s account. More typically, though, metaphysicians will answer that modal statements are not evaluated by how things actually are, but rather by how things might be or must be. There are a few basic modalities of existence, and these are expressed with modal terms in ordinary language, such as ‘must’, ‘may’ ‘might’ etc. The book is a highly effective overview and response to the literature on modal metaphysics. If so, the implication seems to be an Anti-Realism about modal truth or that modal notions cannot be used in expressing legitimate truths. Since the Fictionalist is not a Realist, she cannot say that the right fiction is the one that corresponds to the real possible worlds. It is natural to understand “According to PWF, p” as saying that “if PWF were true, then p would be true.” Yet if the PWF is necessarily false, then the antecedent of this conditional is necessarily false. Yet Fictionalism of course is not without its problems. Yet Meinong’s view of non-actual objects is one position to take regarding non-actual worlds. Contains some of the most important criticisms of Quine (1953). 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