Count Extensions (CIX) was an extension to the architecture which introduced three instructions for counting bits. [11] The PRISM's Epicode was developed into the Alpha's PALcode, providing an abstracted interface to platform- and processor implementation-specific features. The last field is the Rc field, which specifies the register which the result of a computation should be written to. The first version, the Alpha 21064 (otherwise known as the EV4) was introduced in November 1992 running at up to 192 MHz; a slight shrink of the die (the EV4S, shrunk from 0.75 µm to 0.675 µm) ran at 200 MHz a few months later. They differ in the hints provided to the branch prediction hardware. The shift instructions perform arithmetic right shift, and logical left and right shifts. The Alpha architecture was sold, along with most parts of DEC, to Compaq in 1998. Within the computer industry, a joke got started that the acronym AXP meant "Almost eXactly PRISM". The PC is incremented by four to the address of the next instruction when an instruction is decoded. "Digital, MIPS Add Multimedia Extensions". The format is the same as the integer operate format except for the replacement of the 5-bit Rb field and the 3 bits of unused space with an 8-bit literal field which is zero-extended to a 64-bit operand. DEC also produced a PC-like Alpha workstation with an EISA bus, the DECpc AXP 150 (codename "Jensen", also known as the DEC 2000 AXP). A persistent report attributed to DEC insiders suggests the choice of the AXP tag for the processor was made by DEC's legal department, which was still smarting from the VAX trademark fiasco. A lock flag and locked physical address register are used by the load-locked and store-conditional instructions for multiprocessor support. Piranha was a multicore design for transaction processing workloads that contained eight simple cores. A split register file was also determined to be more suitable for multiple instruction issue due to the reduced number of read and write ports. The new design used most of the basic PRISM concepts, but was re-tuned to allow VMS and VMS programs to run at reasonable speed with no conversion at all. Alpha 21064 CPU @ 150 MHz. [27] HP, new owner of Compaq later the same year, announced that development of the Alpha series would continue for a few more years, including the release of a 1.3 GHz EV7 variant called the EV7z. Several third-party vendors also produced Alpha systems, including PC form factor motherboards. Alpha was born out of an earlier RISC project named Prism (Parallel Reduced Instruction Set Machine), itself the product of several earlier projects. The R31 and F31 registers were hardwired to zero and writes to those registers by instructions are ignored. Memory models, migrating towards dynamic allocation solutions, should be memory address space critic. The integer literal format is used by integer instructions which use a literal as one of the operands. A 1-bit field contains a "0", which distinguished this format from the integer literal format. JavaMemoryModel: Alpha Memory model doesn't support fast & safe OO languages From: Bill Pugh (pugh@cs.umd.edu) Date: Mon Jun 28 1999 - 18:11:26 EDT Next message: Dan Scales: "Re: JavaMemoryModel: Alpha Memory model doesn't support fast & safe OO languages" Previous message: David F. Bacon: "Re: JavaMemoryModel: Idiom for safe, unsynchronized reads" Next in … Recap: Pointers I int *ptr; I Pointers are variables that store memory address of other variables I Type of variable pointed to depends on type of pointer: I int *ptr points to an integer value These chips caused a renaissance of custom circuit design within the microprocessor design community. The bitwise logical instructions perform AND, NAND, NOR, OR, XNOR, and XOR between two registers or a register and literal. To ensure this, any architectural feature that impeded multiple instruction issue, clock rate or multiprocessing was removed. The fastest supercomputer based on Alpha processors was the ASCI Q at Los Alamos National Laboratory. There are two such instructions, and they differ only in the hints provided for the branch prediction hardware. The first generation of DEC Alpha-based systems comprised the DEC 3000 AXP series workstations and low-end servers, DEC 4000 AXP series mid-range servers, and DEC 7000 AXP and 10000 AXP series high-end servers. Electronic News, April 4, 1994. The primary Alpha instruction set architects were Richard L. Sites and Richard T. Note that NetBSD has not been tested on many of the individual models in these AlphaStation families, but should run on … The specified conditions are equality, inequality, less than or equal to, less than, greater than or equal to, and greater than. The compare instructions compare two registers or a register and a literal and write '1' to the destination register if the specified condition is true or '0' if not. The Ra field specifies a register to be tested by a conditional branch instruction, and if the condition is met, the program counter is updated by adding the contents of the displacement field with the program counter. 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Instructions resulting in an overflow, such as adding two numbers whose result does not fit in 64 bits, write the 32 or 64 least significant bits to the destination register. The Alpha architecture was intended to be a high-performance design. The first generation included the 21068-based AXPvme 64 and AXPvme 64LC, and the 21066-based AXPvme 160. Management formed a new engineering task force, the "RISCy VAX Task Force", to consider the problem. However these were some of the best servers produced with the Alpha Processors to deliver faster and powerful processing, large memory capacity. As a result, the Alpha does not have: The Alpha does not have condition codes for integer instructions[21] to remove a potential bottleneck at the condition status register. Cache hardware, which distinguished this format from the integer operate instruction.... Slots were filled, which made for an impressive sight articles,... last Modified: 05 DEC 2020 company! 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