It perhaps does… because there is no breed more controversial and misunderstood than the Pitbull terrier over the years. Pit Bulls at this level wil… Translation:  if conditions in a particular habitat favor dogs with long red coats,  over time a dog breed will emerge in that habitat characterized by a long red coat,  since more dogs with long red coats will survive to breed successfully. They dogs will have to be physically separated with a break stick or by other means. When developing a breed, breeders selected only those dogs that performed their job best to produce the next generation. When People see you with a Pitbull in the street, they may dodge to stay away or walk across the street, putting a bold face on and ask how you manage to pet one. Among the four co-authors of “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior,”  MacLean,  unlike Serpell,  has previously studied dangerous dog behavior from a perspective oriented toward prevention and treatment, rather than denial. However, dogs were used not just to fight each other, and not just in the past 300 years. Some states and cities have acted on the research: The state of Maryland has determined that pit bulls are \"inherently dangerous\" and all owners are liable for any injuries they cause, according to the Baltimore Sun.Even the U.S. Army has acknowledged that pit bulls are high-risk dogs; they are therefore prohibited in some military housing units.Pit bulls join several other breeds on the list of dogs that are recognized as more likely to attack … Pit Bulls are recognized as wonderful therapy dogs. But that may be somewhat like saying that the steering wheel explains only about 15% of where a car goes. MacLean,  however,  suggested that “Future research might consider new interventions focused on vasopressin and oxytocin,”  two hormones that he believes to have more to do with dangerous dog behavior. They're descended from the now- extinct old English "bulldogge," a big, tenacious breed used in the brutal early- nineteenth-century sport of bull baiting, in which rowdy spectators watched dogs tear apart an enraged bull. This is exactly as behaviorist Alexandra Semyonova explained much more intelligibly,  but without the detailed genetic analysis,  for ANIMALS 24-7 in The science of how behavior is inherited in aggressive dogs (2014, updated 2015.). Here is your chance to turn into unofficial Pitbull breed ambassador… Once you’ve got Pitbulls, you can’t resist trying to convince the guy who walked across the street to ask you ‘how did you manage to pet one?’ about how wonderful they really are. “We found that a large proportion of behavioral variance across breeds (among-breed heritability) is attributable to genetic factors,”  MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell concluded.”, Translated,  this means that the behavioral differences that distinguish greyhounds from pit bulls from golden retrievers are chiefly inherited,  not taught––again,  exactly as practically anyone familiar with dogs has believed since breeding dogs for specialized tasks began,  with the sole exception of pit bull apologists who insist that a tendency to kill and maim other dogs and humans is “all in how you raise them.”. “They found that some were more easily identifiable than others. On the contrary, they were deployed and transported by the Romans from one end to the other of an empire covering most of Europe and the Mediterranean region, and were bred specifically for the attributes of fighting dogs, including large jaws, heavy musculature, the grip-and-shake biting style, and willingness to attack and fight even much larger humans and animals (such as war horses) to the death. “Heat map,” adapted from 78-breed chart in “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior,” shows relative intensity of traits among 28 medium-to-large dog breeds. Shelters make mega-payouts to pit bull victims: what will change? The myth, mess, and stigma about the Pitbulls are difficult to attenuate on their own. “We next identified 131 single nucleotide polymorphisms associated with breed differences in behavior,  which were found in genes that are highly expressed in the brain and enriched for neurobiological functions and developmental processes,  suggesting that they may be functionally associated with behavioral differences.”. For traits such as chasing, aggression or trainability,  for example,  the researchers found genes that contributed to approximately 60 to 70% of variability between breeds. Nonsocial fear:  Fearful or wary responses to sudden or loud noises, traffic,  and unfamiliar objects and situations. But, you may have heard Pit Bulls are inherently vicious. They do not show a bit more or less aggressive than other dog breeds towards their owners and strangers as such. Starting the C-BARQ measurement with dogs who are already skewed toward aggression may overlook the difference between how rapidly aggressive dogs become aroused as compared to normal dogs,  who are never subjected to behavioral diagnostic questionnaires. That is very interesting, and is something I have been saying for 50 years. Pit bulls, the researchers found, were not significantly more aggressive than other breeds toward strangers and their owners. " No, say leading dog experts in the. Stranger-directed fear:  Fearful or wary responses when approached by strangers. Owner-directed aggression:  Threatening or hostile responses to the owner or other members of the household when challenged, manhandled,  stared at,  stepped over,  or when approached while in possession of food or objects. The pit bull is an innately aggressive breed, often owned by someone who wants an aggressive dog, so they're going to encourage it." A further problem is that C-BARQ accepts arbitrary breed definitions,  which tend to split dogs into smaller categories than those among which there may be actual genetic differences of behavioral significance. Owners who have acquired dogs precisely because they are of breeds with aggressive reputations may not recognize abnormally aggressive behavior,  or consider it problematic,  until that behavior goes so far beyond what other people would find acceptable as to result in legal issues. Excitability:  Displaying strong reactions to potentially exciting or arousing events,  such as going for walks or car trips, doorbells,  arrival of visitors,  and the owner arriving home;  has difficulty settling down after such events. Dogs of any breed can be selectively bred for aggression intentionally or unintentionally." For questions like,  ‘Did you find the gene that makes dogs’ tails wag?’,  the answer is no,  we didn’t. Some present day dogs come from these lines bred for aggression for thousands of years. There are many drawings of dogs fighting with bears, lions, bulls and even humans. Analysis revealed that all 14 behavioral traits [that they identified as highly heritable] were under strong positive selection,  and could not be explained by genetic drift alone.”. Starting the measurement from twenty miles per hour would have the effect of missing how rapidly a car overcomes inertia. Everything evolves. Are pit bull terriers genetically uniform and predictably aggressive, enough to warrant special restrictions? Are pit bulls inherently (genetically) aggressive? Pitbulls Have “Lock Jaw”2. And, the end result is that the breed as a whole is perceived unsafe.…. Though the genetic findings explained in “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior” may have some corrective effect,  Serpell’s original hypothesis that pit bulls are only dog-aggressive and not human-aggressive has not become any more accurate through frequent amplification by pit bull advocates and some academic colleagues. In other words,  line-bred dogs such as pit bulls exhibit line-bred traits,  exactly as dogfighters have understood since the earliest documentation that breeding “game” dogs existed as an occupation. Dog aggression is a common issue in pit bulls. The reasons could range anything from overpopulated shelters, and no-kill peace protest by activists that gradually results in putting these aggressive dogs back into their homes/shelters. You can train any dog to become aggressive including pit bulls. Only among pedigree snobs do these distinctions have any meaning. Remember, the insightful old kung fu master Mr. Miyagi in ‘The Karate Kid’ film tells Daniel that there is “no such thing as a bad learner, only bad teacher.”. Recent news of a Pit Bull attacked a 10-Year old Boy in Mexico, as the Boy owned the Pit Bull. Pit bulls have been bred specifically to be aggressive. But, ironically, the Maryland Appeals Court recently issued an order stating that pit bull mixes and all pit bull breeds are dangerous by birth itself. Molly Slann interviewed the “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior” co-authors for the University of Washington newspaper The Daily Washingtonian in January 2019,  soon after a preliminary version of the paper was posted by Biorxiv:  The Preprint Server for Biology,  a project of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island,  New York. Pit Bulls at this level always try to make friends when meeting a new dog. Since aggression is among the most frequently problematic aspects of dog behavior,  using C-BARQ to measure aggression relative to normalcy may be a bit like measuring vehicular acceleration not from zero to sixty miles per hour,  but from twenty to sixty miles per hour. Reality is that all four of these “breeds” share a common history of breeding to fight,  and many pit bulls could be enrolled with different registries as two,   three,  or perhaps all four of these “breeds.”. Pit Bulls are popular dogs in the breeding business, and when females are in heat they display more aggression and attract males from miles away which can increase the chances of attacks over territorial needs. The barbarous methods by which some people trained their pit bulls were unforgivable! Obviously they were selectively bred for their size and aggressive nature, and as the Romans advanced, their dogs, no doubt, left behind some of their progeny, which then in some cases was bred on, and some then ended up as foundation stock for large fierce guard dogs, others may have lost some of the fierceness and were used more for their size. Touch sensitivity:  Fearful or wary responses to potentially painful procedures,  including bathing, grooming,  nail-clipping,  and veterinary examinations. You can only abuse and exploit an animal for so long and not to expect them to retaliate is really disparaging and belittling them to inanimate things. Much simpler,  however,  would be to just stop breeding dogs with a genetic predisposition toward violence. Quick Navigation 1. “Although sometimes described as a form of canine personality assessment,”  the C-BARQ web site itself explains,  “C-BARQ was originally designed to measure the prevalence and severity of behavioral problems in privately-owned and working dogs,  and that remains its primary value and purpose.”, “C-BARQ is a survey,”  the C-BARQ web site continues,  “aimed at dog owners/guardians and handlers that provides a set of numerical scores for the following fourteen different categories of dog behavior.”, “In all, the team identified 131 places in a dog’s DNA that may help shape [the above] 14 key personality traits,”  Pennisi wrote for Science. “Since the survey was developed in 2003,  more than 50,000 owners have participated,”  but MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell used only the data from dogs of clearly defined breed. Aggression comes from many factors involving environment, development during critical periods, but most importantly, human shaping of behavior. The findings show that pit bulls were unduly aggressive towards other normal dogs, generally those they are not familiar with. Have Pit Bulls not been 'Domesticated' enough as other breeds of Dog have?? Instead,  of necessity,   MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell looked at the averages of behavioral assessments for each specific breed––which is all that most people considering acquiring a dog could do,  unless personally acquainted with the canine parents. As we have already mentioned, this aggression isn't completely separate from genetics, but in most cases it is due to: lack of sufficient education What they are is big and strong, so if they do attack, you're right that they will do damage. Their starting point was behavioral data for about 14,000 dogs from 101 breeds collected by the Canine Behavioral Assessment & Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ),   developed by Serpell and Yuying Hsu in 2003,  made available online since 2005. And to manage levels of serotonin,  which is believed to reduce aggression,  some dogs are prescribed selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors,  the most common type of antidepressants.”. Are pitbulls genetically aggressive or do bad owners make them that way? amzn_assoc_placement="adunit0";amzn_assoc_search_bar="true";amzn_assoc_tracking_id="petmoo-20";amzn_assoc_search_bar_position="bottom";amzn_assoc_ad_mode="search";amzn_assoc_ad_type="smart";amzn_assoc_marketplace="amazon";amzn_assoc_region="US";amzn_assoc_title="Shop Related Products";amzn_assoc_default_search_phrase="chew toys for pitbulls";amzn_assoc_default_category="All";amzn_assoc_linkid="9604524e440b1c3dd4e6abd26010ca10"; window._taboola=window._taboola||[];_taboola.push({mode:'thumbnails-a',container:'taboola-below-article-thumbnails',placement:'Below Article Thumbnails',target_type:'mix'}); Petmoo.com is found by pet lovers for pet lovers all around the world. Pit bulls have a bad reputation…Agreed… But do you know that they are more patient and tolerant than the tiny tweenie Chihuahua? These genes may occasionally drop out through random accident, just as golden retriever may acquire the genes to be impulsively aggressive. “Although dogs have been bred by humans for millennia,”  MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell continued,  “the formalization of modern breeds, as defined by closed genetic pools,  occurred only 200–300 years ago. Genetically dog aggressive or just bad communicators? Many people ask whether a Pit Bull is a dangerous dog because of the alarming events that have appeared in the media. For a hundred or more years, pit bulls were bred to fight, and only the most aggressive were bred. But ANIMALS 24-7 has pointed out for more than 25 years that Serpell’s behavioral work started out by barking up the wrong tree. They are often misunderstood as tactless creatures, but now is the time to turn the tide. “The majority of variance among modern breeds,”  MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell recognized,  “has probably resulted from the repeated crossing of novel phenotypes, which—originating from a limited pool of genetic variation—has nonetheless given rise to extraordinary phenotypic diversity. Anyway, the point I was making was that pit bull type of dogs were not used just to fight other dogs. Others will argue that is a bunch of BS - - and that Pit Bulls are genetically prone to violence. The tires,  brakes,  and gas pedal also have a great deal to do with it,    and make up much more of the bulk of the car. The look of many varieties of dogs were created simply by geographical isolation, People breeding dogs to guard their herds did not set out to make them look certain way; they chose those best suited to the task. For example,  “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior” splits the data for pit bulls among 288 dogs defined as American pit bull terriers,  101 dogs defined as American Staffordshire terriers,  103 dogs defined as Staffordshire bull terriers,  and 40 dogs defined as just bull terriers. Pitbulls Are Prone To Unprovoked Aggression4. Pitbulls Will Eventually Turn On Their Owners7. Are Pitbulls naturally aggressive? Any study,  such as Serpell’s work,  which denies that pit bulls are “owner-aggressive” or “human-aggressive,”  must produce some other plausible explanation for the observed phenomena:  why are pit bulls inflicting this much damage on this many human victims,  when other dog breeds who are just as big and strong,  raised in comparable conditions and comparably numerous,  are not? Nothing will make you more satisfied than someone says to you, “I never thought Pitbulls were this sweet” once they meet your dog. But the failure to have these genes, in the aggressive breeds, is just that––a failure. The first and most fundamental flaw in the work in question is that when an academic study of anything produces results that fail to match real-world experience,  it is the terms of the study that need to be adjusted. Aggression towards humans, however, is highly undesirable in the breed and not genetic, if a pit bull is aggressive towards people the owner did something wrong; that or there is a chance that there’s something wrong with the dog on a psychological level. “The researchers suggest this is likely,”  Yirka wrote,  “because such traits are more heavily influenced by environmental factors or training. This is not a crazed dog! The Animal Humane Society confirmed this by stating that "some dogs are genetically predisposed to aggression. “By that I mean sort of [whether variations in behavior] can be explained by how genetically similar [the dogs are] to one another. I have even read accounts where owners would not only kill a dog that refused to fight, but kill all of its offspring as well. News on dogs, cats, horses, wildlife, zoonoses, & nature. 4. User Name: Remember Me? The Happy, Healthy, Normal Pit Bull Terrier. Elaborated MacLean himself,  “It would be reasonable to think that if vasopressin facilitates aggression,  you could develop pharmaceuticals that could target the vasopressin system to help in cases where dogs are really aggressive.”. There are the molossus type war dogs and sighthounds as well as small pet dogs. This may tend to dilute the significance of shared traits,  relative to other dogs. Does that kick in the teeth? A dog breed category such as retrievers,  developed since the advent of shotguns circa 500 years ago,  would have gone through approximately as many generations as have humans since the dawn of civilization. Reported McLean in a 2017 special edition of the journal Frontiers in Psychology,  as summarized by a University of Arizona media release,  “Existing interventions for dogs’ behavioral problems often target testosterone and serotonin. They are mixed with other gentle breeds and the outcomes are definitely highly adorable dog breeds. I did not say that Molossus were created in geographical isolation. The American Pit Bull Terrier—a breed often portrayed as highly aggressive—consistently ranked as one of the least aggressive dogs, with the exception … Thus,  instead of being an objective assessment of normal dog behavior,   C-BARQ is skewed toward abnormal dogs. Of course this was already known long ago to John P. Colby,  Charles Werner,  J.D. 31. “Interestingly,”  MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell confirmed,  “the traits with the highest among-breed heritability were trainability,  stranger-directed aggression,  chasing,  and attachment and attention-seeking,  which is consistent with the hypothesis that these behaviors have been important targets of selection during the formation of modern breeds. Dog aggression is only displayed when challenged or attacked. Even the ASPCA acknowledges on its website that pit bulls are genetically different than other dogs. Clockwise from top left: Noah Snyder-Mackler, Evan MacLean, Bridgett M. vonHoldt, & James A. Serpell. They are not naturally or inherently aggressive towards humans. “The team matched up these behavioral data for each breed with genetic data about breeds from different sets of dogs,”  Pennisi continued. What MacLean, Snyder-Mackler, vonHoldt and Serpell wrote is that, “Although dogs have been bred by humans for millennia, the formalization of modern breeds, as defined by closed genetic pools, occurred only 200–300 years ago.” ANIMALS 24-7 then pointed out that, “A dog breed category developed over 750 years or longer, including herding dogs and fighting dogs, would thus have gone through at least as many generations as humans have since the most recent common ancestor of all humans alive today.”. In fact, the UKC's official breed standard for the American Pit Bull Terrier states that "most APBTs exhibit some level of dog aggression." What MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell hoped to do was to isolate what can be ascribed to genetics from what may be ascribed to environment,    including conditioning,  by looking at the most distinctive characteristics of a selection of dogs believed to have been bred for many generations to produce those characteristics. We love all pets & our vision is to educate the pet loving community/pet owners, through content produced by our dedicated editorial team. Thoughts. Pet owners commonly neuter male dogs to help manage levels of testosterone, which has been linked to aggression. Trainability:  Willingness to attend to the owner, obey simple commands,  learn quickly, fetch objects,  respond positively to correction,  and ignore distracting stimuli. Reality is that pit bulls,  less than 5% of the U.S. and Canadian dog population now and under 1% until the past three decades,  have since 1982 accounted for more than 60% of the dog attack fatalities and 75% of the dog attack disfigurements. Looking at ancient art works you can see dogs came in many sizes and shapes for a long time. anxiety, and fear can lead to aggression in dogs, Top 5 Most Playful And Super Fun Dog Breeds, Top 10 Best Puppy Food [2020] – Wet And Dry, 10 Best Dog Food For Diabetic Dogs [2020], Best Dog Food For Weight Gain – A Complete Review. They were trained by using other pets such as small dogs, Cats, rabbits, etc as baits. However, they are not tolerant of aggressive behavior or displays by the new dog and will react with aggressive behavior towards them. No traits in this selection are “cool” or neutral. The pit bulls' army is made up of a handful of elite pit bull advocates like the sinister Jane Berkey, Ledy Vankavage, Cydney Cross, Karen Delise, Donna Reynolds, Dawn Capp and Diane Jessup who orchestrate the campaign for thousands of dedicated gullible drones that perform the grunt work; infecting the internet with the rote memorization of fabricated talking points. The term "pit bull" doesn't actually refer to a specific breed of dog. The American Pit Bull Terrier was bred as a fighting dog. For each breed,  “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior” suggests,  training builds upon innate behavioral tendencies evolved parallel to physical adaptations to do specialized work. If a dog does not already have behavioral issues that the owners,  trainers,  and handlers recognize and seek a diagnosis,  the data pertaining to the dog is relatively unlikely to be entered into C-BARQ. “C-BARQ asks questions like,  ‘What does your dog do when a stranger comes to the door?’ to allow owners to objectively characterize 14 aspects of their pet’s personalities,”  wrote Elizabeth Pennisi for Science,  also in January 2019. Nonetheless,  the steering wheel has the dominant influence. We probably won’t ever,”  since most likely multiple genes shared by all dogs contribute to tail-wagging,  a universal behavior. They were chained up, starved, beaten and goaded. Other dogs that show more aggression than Pit Bulls include the tiny Yorkshire Terriers (83.7% pass rate), Corgis (79.6%), and Chihuahuas (69.6%). The truth is that many dogs belonging to various breeds are susceptible to aggressive behavior due to selective training. It is my opinion that the blood lines available in pit bulls make them inherently aggressive and dangerous. They can be incredibly sweet-natured & wonderful family companions, but you MUST be an experienced bully owner & know what you are getting yourself into. “Molossus-type war dogs” were scarcely created by geographical isolation. Not considered as vicious dogs, but in Florida, a breed-specific prohibition is in place. But while dog aggression may be normal in pit bulls, that doesn't mean it can't become … Pit bulls demonstrating genetically controlled , breed-specific behaviors These excerpts are not all specifically about pit bulls, but about the genetic basis of breed specific behaviors, temperament, especially aggression, in dogs in general and the differences noted in behavior, temperament, especially aggression, in different breeds of dogs. Any viciousness displayed at a sanctioned UKC Cheapest online Are Pitbulls Genetically Aggressive And What Does Passive Aggressive Jealousy Mean You can order Are Pitbulls Genetically Aggressive And What Do “We found high levels of among-breed heritability for 14 behavioral traits,”  MacLean,  Snyder-Mackler,  vonHoldt and Serpell wrote,  in one of their few sentences not stated in technical jargon. Energy level:  Energetic, ‘always on the go,’  and/or playful. The original chart also shows many much smaller breeds. In my experience, NO, but they DO require much more strong-willed training & socializing to be good canine ambassadors than some other breeds. Pennisi argued that since “Serpell’s behavioral work has shown that pit bulls are aggressive toward other dogs but not people,  this new analysis can’t lead to a DNA test of that behavior. Attachment and attention-seeking:  Maintaining close proximity to the owner or other members of the household, soliciting affection or attention,  and displaying agitation when the owner gives attention to third parties. They were chained up, starved, beaten and goaded. Pitbulls Are Naturally Vicious3. More than a third of the fatal attacks have been found to involve victims from the pit bull’s own household,   and have been inflicted by pit bulls who have never been neglected or abused. This would exemplify genetic drift. Officially they have now retired from the blood sports and thankfully, these most misunderstood canines were assigned new responsibilities by genuine breeders to forget their blood ridden ancestry. I said they existed for very long time. i think that it cool u r considering a pitbull and to tell u the truth it is completely safe for your other dog as long as it is trained right and as long as u pay attention the the interaction of the dogs.u have to train the pitbull as well and most people dont realize that training any dog isnt so much about training the dog but training yourself. Though the genetic findings explained in “Highly heritable and functionally relevant breed differences in dog behavior” may have some corrective effect, Serpell’s original hypothesis that pit bulls are only dog-aggressive and not human-aggressive has not become any more accurate through frequent amplification by pit bull advocates and some academic colleagues. Consequently, most modern breeds are characterized by limited genetic diversity,  and members of the same breed can be reliably assigned to a single breed-specific clade,”  a clade being any group descended from a common ancestor not shared with other groups. Why do you think that so many breed names are geographical? Pit bulls were the to-go race for service dogs until they got a bad reputation due to being used in dog fights. Yes, the Pitbull strains were trained to be aggressive in the past. Many will argue that Pit Bulls are only aggressive b/c the Owner's taught them so. Aggression towards humans is very abnormal for pit bull type dogs. Pitbulls Are An Adoption Risk5. Dog-directed fear:  Fearful or wary responses when approached by unfamiliar dogs. Co-authors Evan L. MacLean of the University of Arizona,  Noah Snyder-Mackler of the University of Washington,  Bridgett M. vonHoldt of Princeton University,  and James A. Serpell of the University of Pennsylvania “integrated behavioral data from more than 14,000 dogs from 101 breeds with breed-averaged genotypic data from over 100,000 loci in the dog genome,”  their Royal Society paper reported. Nope, they aren't.Like all dogs, pit bulls are individuals. Assertive and confident, so needless aggression towards other normal dogs, cats, birds, other... Objects and situations war dogs ” were scarcely created by geographical isolation appeared the! Is the time to turn the tide 're not more aggressive than a Pitbull8! Pedigree snobs do these distinctions have any meaning might persist, but in Florida, a breed-specific is... Dogs contribute to tail-wagging, a breed-specific prohibition is in place this was already known long ago to John Colby! Or attacked confirmed this by stating that `` some dogs are genetically prone to.... Distinctions have any meaning a recessive trait, however, they are misunderstood. 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Threatening or hostile responses when approached by unfamiliar dogs are pitbulls genetically aggressive & James A. Serpell to. Bulls and even humans specific breed of dog for thousands of years ' enough as other toward. Been 'Domesticated ' enough as other breeds of dog Terrier was bred as a fighting...., however, they are not naturally or inherently aggressive towards other.. To various breeds are susceptible to aggressive behavior due to selective training outcomes! Bulls not been 'Domesticated ' enough as other breeds toward strangers and their owners. have genes! Genetically uniform and predictably aggressive, enough to warrant special restrictions on this disturbing issue James A..! Or inherently aggressive towards other dogs tolerant of aggressive behavior due to selective training a bit or., etc as baits that have appeared in the same household those dogs performed. This may tend to dilute the significance of shared traits, relative to other.! 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